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  • Jie Xu

Writing Scripts with Notepad to Test the Interaction Between LSB and MSB Program

 

As the most important factor of test, logical approach is to define the workflow
of the test process first, and then just adopt simple codes can get ideal
conclusions.


LSB (Least Significant Bit) and MSB (Most Significant Bit) are actually two bits
in the same cell of a MLC NAND Flash, LSB is relative to Lower Page and
MSB is associated to Upper Page. As the Lower Page is programmed first, the
Upper Page has higher requirements for the voltage accuracy during
programming. Programming the Upper Page is slow and inevitably causes
influences or even errors to Lower Page. And in theory programming the
Lower Page certainly has effects on the Upper Page.


Two important questions have to be answered first for testing LSB and MSB:
1. How to figure out which is LSB and which is MSB.
2. How to test the influences on MSB by LSB program? And the vice versa.


For the first question, some NAND Flash manufacturers give out which are the
shared pages with a list in the datasheet, while some others don’t provide
this. It is quite simple for those with the list, we can just follow the list to do the
test.


Shared Pages List provided by Nand Flash manufacturer:

Collapse )
  • Jie Xu

Data Destruction Patterns at Home and Abroad

ben@renice.co

For military applications, data security concerns military secrets or even decides the outcome of the war. Especially in modern warfare, on the one hand, countries go all out to develop more advanced and safer electronic systems, and on the other hand, they try every means to decode each other’s systems. And yet, as the data medium, the hard disks try all encryption means to prevent being decrypted and meanwhile pay closely attention to quick erase or data destruction under various emergency environments.

Initial news of a contract between IBM and DARPA (Defense Advanced Research Project Agency) asks IBM to develop a “new class of electronics that the computers, sensors and other network devices could disappear automatically triggered by a signal sent from command”.When the commander sits in the command post with his feet up, he can just simply tap a button and the mobile phones, computers and all other devices in this controllable network could turn to ashes…

While technically this is obviously not just science fiction, we have got various weird demands and those technologies already realized are not lower than this at all.

Data Destruction Classification

In general, data destruction is divided into two types:

One is Logical Destruction which destroys the data only but not the physical chipsets, SSD is reusable just after destructing the data or re-implanting firmware.

Logical Destruction can be classified into two categories: one is Quick Destruction (namely Fast Purge), another one is over-writing which usually takes several hours depending on the SSD capacity. These data destruction methods can be implemented by software, but mostly by hardware.




Generally Quick Erase is not actually erasing data, thus it is risky at some level, but it is inevitable and important under urgent environments.

Another one is Physical Destruction with chipsets inside burned directly, data recovery is impossible in this way.

Physical Destruction generally utilizes the following means: Hammer or other heavy stuff for crush, strong acid for destruction, explosive to destroy it or high voltage to burn the chipsets.

Approaches for Data Destruction

In general, both logical and physical data destruction can be implemented through specified pin or a hardware button if the host system and SSD device unify the pin definition.

It is necessary to set misoperation time for the destruction through hardware button, normally a few seconds before triggering the destruction function.

Physical destruction by high voltage is much more difficult than logical destruction, and the more difficult part is how to ensure every piece of NAND flash chipset being burned up. Theoretically, it can be easily realized by several means to burn the chipsets one by one, while in view of practice, burning up one chipset usually takes long time and may not continue burning the next chipset thereafter or maybe there’s some chipset failed to be burned up.

Destruction Standards

The data destruction standard in each country maybe different, some countries require over-writing for 7 times while some others require for 4 times, and some countries regard deleting the encryption key as secure destruction. The security department in each country has different requirements for data destruction standards and methods, so just implement corresponding mechanism for SSD solutions.

Application Scenarios

I. Acceleration Sensing Physical Destruction SSD

This is an application in some country’swarcraft, the design purpose is to prevent military data leaks when the warcraft is shot down. In such case, the pilot is probably dead, or even if he is still alive, then he can use the limited time for escape but no need to destruct the data by himself with sacrificing the chance of survival. When the craft starts falling down, the accelerometer in the SSD would sense the acceleration and triggers the data destruction automatically when reaching the preset threshold value to destruct the SSD physically, no need manual operation during the whole process. Even if the enemy finds the crashed warcraft, the internal military data has vanished.

II. Remote Destruction

Remote Destruction is getting pretty common, even iPhone support remote data destruction function and many SSD solutions also utilizes a SIM card internally to implement the remote destruction function. Therefore the data destruction by means of sending messages is quite “low”among present technologies.

For military applications especially outdoor ones, utilizing GPS (e.g.BeiDou in China) can also realize remote positioning and destruction, and more reliable. It requires authorization to use GPS, navigation system is usually one-way communication which can only receive satellite signal but not send signal to satellite, the military can execute remote destruction through satellite after getting authorized.

Whether it is GPS or SIM card, the signal problem is faced in both cases.

III. Automatic Destruction When Leaving the Specified Location

Restrict the use of the disk in a certain area (e.g. inside the Command Post), the destruction program will start automatically when the computer is detected leaving out of the distance of the specified location.

IV. Physical Destruction Continues after External Power Supply Being Cut off

When the external power supply is cut off during executing data destruction, SSD will continue to finish the process using the reserved power offered by built-in batteries or capacitors.




V. Unfinished Destruction Continues after Retry Powering on the Disk

When the external power supply is cut off during the data destruction process, the destruction will be stopped, but it will continue the unfinished part after retrying powering on the SSD.

The disadvantage for this method is that there is a potential risk for the un-destructed data to be recovered if the enemy decodes data through disassembling the NAND Flash chips.

VI. Re-Define Pin Assignment, SSD Starts Destruction When Connecting to a New Device after Leaving the Original Device

The SSD is bounded together with the client’s hardware, thus the SSD is irregular, and it will be burned when connected to other devices for decoding data if the enemy doesn’t know the pin definition.

  • Jie Xu

Data Destruction Patterns at Home and Abroad

ben@renice.co

For military applications, data security concerns military secrets or even decides the outcome of the war. Especially in modern warfare, on the one hand, countries go all out to develop more advanced and safer electronic systems, and on the other hand, they try every means to decode each other’s systems. And yet, as the data medium, the hard disks try all encryption means to prevent being decrypted and meanwhile pay closely attention to quick erase or data destruction under various emergency environments.

Initial news of a contract between IBM and DARPA (Defense Advanced Research Project Agency) asks IBM to develop a “new class of electronics that the computers, sensors and other network devices could disappear automatically triggered by a signal sent from command”.When the commander sits in the command post with his feet up, he can just simply tap a button and the mobile phones, computers and all other devices in this controllable network could turn to ashes…

While technically this is obviously not just science fiction, we have got various weird demands and those technologies already realized are not lower than this at all.

Data Destruction Classification

In general, data destruction is divided into two types:

One is Logical Destruction which destroys the data only but not the physical chipsets, SSD is reusable just after destructing the data or re-implanting firmware.

Logical Destruction can be classified into two categories: one is Quick Destruction (namely Fast Purge), another one is over-writing which usually takes several hours depending on the SSD capacity. These data destruction methods can be implemented by software, but mostly by hardware.




Generally Quick Erase is not actually erasing data, thus it is risky at some level, but it is inevitable and important under urgent environments.

Another one is Physical Destruction with chipsets inside burned directly, data recovery is impossible in this way.

Physical Destruction generally utilizes the following means: Hammer or other heavy stuff for crush, strong acid for destruction, explosive to destroy it or high voltage to burn the chipsets.

Approaches for Data Destruction

In general, both logical and physical data destruction can be implemented through specified pin or a hardware button if the host system and SSD device unify the pin definition.

It is necessary to set misoperation time for the destruction through hardware button, normally a few seconds before triggering the destruction function.

Physical destruction by high voltage is much more difficult than logical destruction, and the more difficult part is how to ensure every piece of NAND flash chipset being burned up. Theoretically, it can be easily realized by several means to burn the chipsets one by one, while in view of practice, burning up one chipset usually takes long time and may not continue burning the next chipset thereafter or maybe there’s some chipset failed to be burned up.

Destruction Standards

The data destruction standard in each country maybe different, some countries require over-writing for 7 times while some others require for 4 times, and some countries regard deleting the encryption key as secure destruction. The security department in each country has different requirements for data destruction standards and methods, so just implement corresponding mechanism for SSD solutions.

Application Scenarios

I. Acceleration Sensing Physical Destruction SSD

This is an application in some country’swarcraft, the design purpose is to prevent military data leaks when the warcraft is shot down. In such case, the pilot is probably dead, or even if he is still alive, then he can use the limited time for escape but no need to destruct the data by himself with sacrificing the chance of survival. When the craft starts falling down, the accelerometer in the SSD would sense the acceleration and triggers the data destruction automatically when reaching the preset threshold value to destruct the SSD physically, no need manual operation during the whole process. Even if the enemy finds the crashed warcraft, the internal military data has vanished.

II. Remote Destruction

Remote Destruction is getting pretty common, even iPhone support remote data destruction function and many SSD solutions also utilizes a SIM card internally to implement the remote destruction function. Therefore the data destruction by means of sending messages is quite “low”among present technologies.

For military applications especially outdoor ones, utilizing GPS (e.g.BeiDou in China) can also realize remote positioning and destruction, and more reliable. It requires authorization to use GPS, navigation system is usually one-way communication which can only receive satellite signal but not send signal to satellite, the military can execute remote destruction through satellite after getting authorized.

Whether it is GPS or SIM card, the signal problem is faced in both cases.

III. Automatic Destruction When Leaving the Specified Location

Restrict the use of the disk in a certain area (e.g. inside the Command Post), the destruction program will start automatically when the computer is detected leaving out of the distance of the specified location.

IV. Physical Destruction Continues after External Power Supply Being Cut off

When the external power supply is cut off during executing data destruction, SSD will continue to finish the process using the reserved power offered by built-in batteries or capacitors.




V. Unfinished Destruction Continues after Retry Powering on the Disk

When the external power supply is cut off during the data destruction process, the destruction will be stopped, but it will continue the unfinished part after retrying powering on the SSD.

The disadvantage for this method is that there is a potential risk for the un-destructed data to be recovered if the enemy decodes data through disassembling the NAND Flash chips.

VI. Re-Define Pin Assignment, SSD Starts Destruction When Connecting to a New Device after Leaving the Original Device

The SSD is bounded together with the client’s hardware, thus the SSD is irregular, and it will be burned when connected to other devices for decoding data if the enemy doesn’t know the pin definition.

E Learning Academy, Graphics Design, Tutorial, Logo Design

Filmora Tutorial - How to Install and Active Wondershare Filmora Permane...



Filmora Wondershare is one of the most popular video editing software for beginners. Lots of people use Filmora Wondershare to make their YouTube videos. Its wonderful features able to get anyone attention. In this Video i will show you How to Install and Active Wondershare Filmora permanently without purchase its license key. Hope you will benefited by this video tutorial.

Filmora Wondershare Key: 1D65F92090AAC927F675A2090D1CA706
Software Version 7.5

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E Learning Academy, Graphics Design, Tutorial, Logo Design

How to add a trademark sign to your youtube Channel



A trademark is a recognizable sign, design, or expression which identifies products or services of a particular source. Although trademarks used to identify services are usually called service marks. The trademark owner can be an individual, business organization, or any legal entity. A trademark may be located on a package, a label, a voucher, or on the product itself. For the sake of corporate identity, trademarks are being displayed on company buildings. In this video I will show you a simple trick, So you will know How to add a trademark sign to your YouTube Channel.